Thursday, June 2, 2022

Goguryeo kingdom

The Goguryeo kingdom flourished in the 5th and 6th century AD. The traditional founding date of the Goguryeo kingdom was 37 BC and credited to Chu-mong, leader of one of the Puyŏ tribes. Right after its foundation, Goguryeo conquered a number of small states in the area and moved its capital to Gungnaeseong (Tonggu) near the Amnokgang River.

Goguryeo was traditionally considered as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea since ancient times and was perceived as a state considered to be one of the predecessors of the Korean nation. The kingdom occupying southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula.

The various tribes of the region began to create a more homogenous political unit structured around five provinces during the reign of Gogukcheon (179-196 AD). The king controlled foreign relations and the military. Aggressive military activities may have allowed Goguryeo to exact tribute from their tribal neighbors and to even dominate them politically and economically.

Early Goguryeo kings developed their rule around two important considerations: successful integration of local tribal leaders into the emerging royal government, and establishment of a tribute and tax collection system for an expanding kingdom.

With the promulgation by King Sosurim (reigned 371–384) of various laws and decrees aimed at centralizing royal authority, Goguryeo emerged as a full-fledged aristocratic state.

The early 5th century AD saw the beginning of Goguryeo's greatest period when, during the reign of Gwanggaeto . Gwanggaeto reigned from 391 to 412, during which Goguryeo conquered 64 walled cities and 1,400 villages from one campaign against Buyeo alone, destroyed Later Yan and annexed Buyeo and Mohe tribes to the north.

With the establishment of the unifying Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties in China, Goguryeo began to suffer incursions from China.

In 661 AD a Tang army besieged Pyongyang which was weakened by an internal power struggle for the throne. The Tangs were forced to withdraw, but when they attacked again in 667 CE, the city, although this time holding out for a year, finally fell and the entire peninsula came under the Unified Silla dynasty (668–935).
Goguryeo kingdom

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