Tuesday, January 5, 2021

Ancient empire of Tiwanaku

The empire of Tiwanaku developed around the year 1580 BC and extended its kingdom until the year 1187 AD. Tiwanaku (or Tiahuanaco) was the capital of the Tiwanaku Empire.

Tiwanaku spreads through the territories of Peru, Chile, and Bolivia, but mainly developed in Bolivia, a few kilometers of Titicaca Lake, in the city of La Paz, the seat of the Bolivian government. After 500 AD, Tiwanaku evolved into the largest site in the basin both in terms of population and monumentality.

Beginning as a small settlement around 1200 B.C. and located on a flat Altiplano about 20 km from the south shore of Lake Titicaca, the site of Tiwanaku rapidly expanded into a small town. Raised-field agriculture supported increased food production, encouraged population growth and the development of organized labor, leading to the development of large settlements, social stratification, and craft specialization.

The architecture, sculpture, roads, and empire management of Tiwanaku would exert a significant influence on the later Inca civilization. Tiwanaku achieved unprecedented public works and urban scale supported by a complex landscape of frost-resistant raised fields, arts and craft industries that impressed later Incas and Spaniards alike, and an elaborate iconographic system that helped spread a shared state ideology. Considering the massive scale and sophistication of the Tiwanaku capital and the agrarian and settlement systems of its altiplano core region, it is reasonable to envision Tiwanaku as a centralized state and political economy comparable to archaic states worldwide.

The political and religious decay of Tiwanaku may have occurred between 950 and 1100 AD. Evidence indicates that this empire was bloody destroyed, as reported by the remains of bodies that were desecrated and torn apart.
Ancient empire of Tiwanaku  

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