Sunday, August 23, 2020

Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan, extending from Baluchistan to Sindh, and extending into modern day Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab, with an upward reach to Rupar on the upper on the upper Sutlej.

The Indus Valley Civilization started in South Asia in at 7000 BCE -3200 BCE. The earliest evidence of human civilization in South Asia is from the Mehrgarh Region.

Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. The Early Harappan Ravi Phase, named after the nearby Ravi River, lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE.

The Indus Valley Civilization, a bronze age civilization, has two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.

This civilization was largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, South Asia and China an covered an area of around 1.3 million square kilometers.

The civilization, with a writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s after excavations at Mohenjo-daro (which means "mound of the dead") in Sindh near Sukkur, and Harappa, in west Punjab south of Lahore.

By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centers.
*The communities found to have knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene, or, alternately, accessibility to the means of religious ritual.
*The sites are known the world's first known urban sanitation systems
*The sites far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today many areas of Pakistan and India today
Indus Valley Civilization

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