Monday, July 5, 2021


The Indus civilisation (2600-1900 B.C.), home to the first cities in South Asia. The civilization spread across the Indus River basin east, west, north and south over 500,000 square miles, making it the largest known ancient civilization and have had a population of five million people.

Mohenjo-daro (literally ‘mound of the dead’) is located on the right bank of the Indus River in Larkana District of Sind. The civilization of Indus Valley, with a writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s after excavations at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh.

Mohenjo-daro, built around 2500 BC was one of the largest settlements of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. It is one of the world's earliest major cities, belong at the same time with the civilizations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Minoan Crete, and Norte Chico.

Mohenjo-Daro is built on a platform of brick which provide protection against flooding in the valley of the Indus, whose yearly sediment deposits have raised the level of the river plains.

Heterarchy in the Indus civilization co-existed with remarkable examples of coordination and standardization. In addition to Mohenjo-daro’s street plans and drainage networks, Indus agricultural production likely involved institutions that operated across kin or community boundaries, and Indus craft industries coordinated activity among many different specialists.

The Harappan civilization in its mature form appears to have come to an end around 1800 BC. The discovery of scattered groups of skeletons in the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro seem to lend weight to a theory that the inhabitants were massacred by invaders.

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